Child Immune Development

The Dark Side of Antibiotics

Adverse Effects on the Infant Immune Defense Against Infection Antibiotics have saved countless lives but have unintended side effects. Infants exposed to antibiotics show increased susceptibility to diseases later in life. Antibiotics disrupt the balance of the microbiota, affecting immune responses. Infant microbiota is immature and unstable until 2-3 years of age. Healthcare communities and families need to understand antibiotic effects on infant immunity.

Microbiota Dysbiosis

Human microbiota comprises bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Bacterial microbes are vital in nutrient synthesis, immunity, and brain function. Infants may be exposed to maternal microbiota during the fetal stage. Significant microbiota transfer occurs around birth and continues up to 3 years. Dysbiosis can have significant consequences during this period. Antibiotics are a major cause of dysbiosis, leading to decreased microbial diversity.

Impact on Host Defense Against Infection

Antibiotics cause microbial dysbiosis in infancy, leading to a higher risk of diseases later. Studies link prolonged antibiotic exposure to increased risk of infections in infants. Antibiotic exposure affects infant microbiota and the immune system. There is a need for attention from physicians, scientists, and policymakers. There is a need for Animal Models Exploring Antibiotic-Mediated Infant Immunity.

Modulation of Immune Responses to Pathogens Innate Immunity

Antibiotics influence innate immune cells like dendritic cells, NK cells, and ILCs. Dysbiosis affects the function and migration of these cells.

Adaptive Immunity

Antibiotics impair humoral responses crucial for vaccine immunity. T-cell immunity is also affected by antibiotics. Few studies have explored the effects on human infant immune cells. Our company is committed to doing this research.

Conclusions and Future Directions

Antibiotics are essential but have consequences in infants. They change microbial ecology, affecting immune responses and increasing susceptibility to future infections. Understanding these effects is vital for better treatment strategies. Future research should explore the direct effects of antibiotics on infant immunity and develop better animal models. Ref: